Accelerating the grapevine effect The group, which includes scientists from institutions in Germany, Brazil, and Switzerland, developed a model for the spread of gossip among students at an American school.The model uses survey data from more than 90,000 students in 84 schools who were asked about other students they had personal contact with, such as eating lunch or studying. It introduces concrete quantities that define how widely and quickly gossip can spread among students, a segment of the population in which gossip is particularly prevalent.“At a first glance, our central hypothesis may seem obvious: In social systems the number of friends influences the danger of being gossiped,” said Pedro Lind, a physicist at the Institute of Computational Physics at the University of Stuttgart, in Germany, to PhysOrg.com. “But the hypothesis says more than that: Our results show that the optimal number of friends to minimize gossip spreading is neither very large nor very low.”So if a student has too few or too many friends, the danger of being the subject of a piece of gossip goes up. The optimal number depends on the size of the social network: the larger the network, the larger the optimal number.In the model — which Lind proposed together with his colleagues, physicists Luciano da Silva, José Andrade, and Hans Herrmann — each student in the network is represented by a node. Each node is connected to several others, defining each student’s “nearest neighbors,” or friends. The model introduces two terms, the “spreading factor” and “spreading time.” When a gossip is introduced by one student (the originator) that targets another student (the victim), the spreading time is the minimum time it takes for the gossip to spread to all of the victim’s accessible friends. The spread factor is the fraction of the victim’s friends that ultimately hear the gossip. It has a maximum value of 1, which corresponds to the case in which all of the victim’s friends have heard the gossip.When using the student-survey data, the model states that the optimal number of friends a student should have in order to minimize gossip spreading is about six.The model also shows that, when the number of friends is sufficiently large, the time it takes for the gossip to spread to all the victim’s friends grows logarithmically (i.e. by powers of 10) as a function of the number of friends. Therefore, beyond the optimal number, having more friends makes the risk of gossip greater, but slows the spread.This research is published in the September 27, 2007, online edition of Physical Review E.Citation: Pedro G. Lind, Luciano R. da Silva, José S. Andrade, Jr., and Hans J. Herrmann, “Spreading gossip in social networks” Phys. Rev. E 76, 036117 (2007)Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Gossip is All About Friends, Physicists Say (2007, November 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-11-gossip-friends-physicists.html Explore further The extent and speed that gossip spreads largely depends on how many friends the subject of the gossip has, according to recent work by a group of physicists. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(PhysOrg.com) — “Carbon nanotubes have a lot of really nice properties that make them good for photonics,” Laurent Vivien tells PhysOrg.com. Ever since the discovery that carbon nanotubes have photoluminescence when encapsulated in micelle surfactant, Vivien points out, there has been interest in pursuing them for use in nanophotonics, and in microelectronics. As encouraging as photoluminescence in carbon nanotubes has been, though, scientists also need to see that they could be investigated as optical sources. The ability to amplify light is vital for this purpose. Vivien, a CNRS scientist at the Institute of Fundamental Electronics at the University Paris-Sud in Orsay, France, is part of a team that has demonstrated that optical gain is possible with carbon nanotubes. Along with a team from the Institute, as well as the National Institute of Advance Industrial Science and Technology in Tsukuba, Japan, Vivien has published the group’s findings in Applied Physics Letters: “Optical gain in carbon nanotubes.”“Our demonstration is the first step to reach a laser source based on carbon nanotubes that can be used in photonics,” Vivien explains. “The first step is to demonstrate that gain can be seen in the material, and we have done that, showing that carbon nanotubes can amplify light.”The demonstration of optical gain was relatively straightforward in III-V materials, but it was the first time in carbon nanotubes. The team used a polymer assisted extraction technique: a semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube doped thin layer was dropped onto glass. The sample was then excited with the help of a laser, and the results observed. The scientists in the group noted that the light was, in fact, amplified. “Now that we have seen that carbon nanotubes can produce this effect, the next step is to build a laser based on carbon nanotubes,” Vivien says. He points out that it should be possible to insert a carbon nanotube inside an optical resonator in order to make a laser. “This method could lead to a laser with the capability to emit at several wavelengths according to the nanotube geometry, which could be suitable for many photonic applications.”Other possibilities for photonics based on carbon nanotubes include telecommunications and possible microelectronics. “It should be possible to make photonic circuits based on carbon nanotubes,” Vivien says, “and the semiconducting nature of these nanotubes could also make them useful in electronics. These carbon nanotubes are versatile, and with them you can make several building blocks for many different applications.”Vivien and his colleagues plan to focus first on building a laser based on carbon nanotubes, rather than exploring the possibilities in microelectronics; other scientists might be able to pick up on that work. “While I see other potential applications following this demonstration, I am most interested in photonics,” he explains. “This really is a good first step toward a new photonics based on carbon nanotubes. This could be less expensive, flexible and used in many applications.”“Semiconducting carbon nanotubes offer a very good material,” Vivien continues. “There are a number of desirable properties for a wide variety of applications. These nanotubes are low cost, modular and flexible. This is a breakthrough for photonics using carbon nanotubes and could lead to a whole new photonics in the future.” Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. More information: Etienne Gaufrčs, Nicolas Izard, Xavier Le Roux, Delphine Marris-Morini, Saďd Kazaoui, Eric Cassan, and Laurent Vivien, “Optical gain in carbon nanotubes,” Applied Physics Letters (2010). Available online: link.aip.org/link/APPLAB/v96/i23/p231105/s1 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Carbon nanotubes show the ability to amplify light, could lead to new photonic applications (2010, June 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-06-carbon-nanotubes-ability-amplify-photonic.html Explore further High Value Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes
Google has yet to say anything official about an upcoming smartwatch but that has not stopped all the talk. Phandroid, one of the sites discussing the Google smartwatch rumor this week, referred to an anonymous tipster saying Google was heavily focusing for the watch on battery life and Bluetooth 4.0.9to5Google discussed the rumors of a Google Watch “happening soon” and suggested illustrations of what the watch might look like, showing a circular design as well as an alternate square design. The watch is expected to run the operating system Android.The rumors are plausible when considering that Google had earlier on not only filed for a smartwatch patent but also bought a smartwatch company WIMM Labs, gaining expertise on that end. Also, Google has made technology advancements in the form of Google Now notifications and alerts; expectations are that the new smartwatch, if it does debut, may carry Google Now functionality. A smartwatch empowered with utilities in Google Now could turn out to be not just a wearable phone but a handy wearable digital assistant. The smartwatch would leverage Google Now technology; and would suit consumers who otherwise would be reluctant to walk around with a display above the eye, preferring a device worn instead on the wrist. As the rumors swirl, there are the obvious questions about what Google will choose as the name for the smartwatch and of course the price. Another key question being posed is just how the smartwatch will be positioned. If fed with notifications and alerts via Google Now, will the smartwatch be designed and marketed as a primary companion to the Nexus phone? Will it be designed and marketed as a standalone device? If a rumored date of October 31 is correct, the watch might coincide with the release of KitKat (Android 4.4) and possibly the release of Nexus 5. While the positioning of the smartwatch is not yet clear, a trail of hints that this day is coming sooner or later goes back to earlier this year rather than just this month. The Financial Times reported back in March that Google’s smartwatch was being developed by its Android unit according to a person briefed on the project, to act as an extension to phones using that OS. “Is that a smartwatch you’re not wearing?” Google’s may actually appear More information: 9to5google.com/2013/10/14/goog … e-now-functionality/plus.google.com/10779727202978 … 58/posts/ccAHguudNop Explore further (Phys.org) —Should the smartwatch successfully kick off a wearables trend in the consumer marketplace, then big computer vendors will clamor for a piece of the action. Google, according to a resurgence in smartwatch rumors this week, is not about to stand around and wait. According to the new batch of rumors, Google already is putting the final touches on its own smartwatch, codenamed Gem, to be launched in just weeks. And there’s more rumor talk: Google is focusing on longer battery life, and is targeting its debut to coincide with the launch of Android 4.4 (KitKat) at the end of the month. 9to5Google illustration. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Google smartwatch rumors say this could be the month (2013, October 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-10-google-smartwatch-rumors-month.html © 2013 Phys.org
(Phys.org) —A team of researchers with Dartmouth College in the U.S. and the University of Plymouth in the U.K. has found that a massive amount of tiny bits of rayon, plastics and other man-made materials are embedded in Arctic sea ice. In their paper published in the journal Earth’s Future, the team describes how they found evidence of the materials in core samples taken in 2005 and 2010 and note that as Arctic sea ice melts, the embedded material will be released into the ocean, likely causing problems for marine life. Declining sea ice to lead to cloudier Arctic: study Citation: Discovery suggests there may be trillions of tiny bits of material pollutants trapped in Arctic ice (2014, May 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-05-discovery-trillions-tiny-bits-material.html Explore further We all use plastics and other materials every day, but few of us give much thought to what happens to it after we toss it in the trash after it’s no longer useful to us. A lot of it winds up in landfills, of course, but a lot goes missing and now it appears that the researchers studying core samples, may have found where it’s gone: it’s been captured in Arctic sea ice, torn apart into tiny pieces during the journey there.The rayon and plastic bits aren’t noticeable to a person walking around in the Arctic because the pieces are so small, typically less than 5 millimeters in length. It’s in the form of beads, fibers or irregular fragments. Scientists have observed such material in the ocean before, particularly around garbage islands such as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. But never before have scientists noticed them in ice cores taken from the top of the world.The researchers don’t see any imminent threat from the embedded materials—the problem is that global warming is causing Arctic sea ice to melt, and as it does so, it will release the captured material into the sea, and no one knows what sort of impact that will have. Most of the materials aren’t expected to be toxic, but many are known to soak up chemicals, like a sponge. If the chemicals are toxic and an animal eats them, it likely would get sick or die.In counting the number of bits of material in the ice cores and estimating the amount of ice they are in, the researchers have concluded that there might be in the neighborhood of a trillion pieces of the stuff in position ready to be released into the world’s northern oceans. A little over half of the bits were rayon, the researchers report—others were polypropylene, acrylic, nylon, polyester, polyethylene and polystyrene. More information: Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice, Earth’s Future, DOI: 10.1002/2014EF000240AbstractWhen sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. , suggest that the decline in Arctic sea ice volume (3.4% per decade), will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al.  have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2014 Phys.org
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Science Explore further Antisense therapy—a promising new way to treat neurological disease Synthesizing genes has become so popular that there are now companies that do it for a living, but it is still an expensive proposition—current methods require sewing small strands into sequences one at a time after they have been created. In this new effort, the researchers report a one-pot approach to gene synthesis that could lead to lowering costs.Currently, gene synthesis is done using a microarray, producing DNA oligonucleotides, which then have to be sewn together—the team at UoC also started with a microarray, but they first gave the oligonucleotides an identifying length of gene sequence, which they describe as a “barcode.” Next, they added microbeads with complimentary barcodes that could pull matching oligonucleotides from a pool of different kinds of oligonucleotides. The result was a pool of microbeads, each of which had a small group of attached same-type oligonucleotides. The team then enclosed each of the microbeads (and its group of oligonucleotides) in an emulsion droplet using what they describe as an oligonucleotide and oil mixture vortex—for 30 seconds. After that, enzymes induced all of the oligonucleotides in a single droplet to merge (via polymerase cycling assembly), resulting in a desired sequence. The sequences were then removed from the emulsion ready for use. The process is better than conventional methods, the team suggests, because it offers access to a gene pool at essentially the same cost as an oligonucleotide pool—it does not add much. Unfortunately, there is a pretty big downside. The process, they note, is “messy,” because it is only approximately 5 percent efficient—not nearly good enough for use in manufacturing processes. On a more positive note, the method could be used to create large libraries of genes for various purposes, at very little cost. It could also be used in research efforts, particularly those involved in protein design. © 2018 Phys.org A team of researchers at the University of California has found a way to synthesize multiple genes from a group of microarray-generated oligonucleotides. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their technique, called DropSynth, how well it works, and its drawbacks. More information: Calin Plesa et al. Multiplexed gene synthesis in emulsions for exploring protein functional landscapes, Science (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aao5167AbstractImproving our ability to construct and functionally characterize DNA sequences would broadly accelerate progress in biology. Here, we introduce DropSynth, a scalable, low-cost method to build thousands of defined gene-length constructs in a pooled (multiplexed) manner. DropSynth uses a library of barcoded beads that pull down the oligonucleotides necessary for a gene’s assembly, which are then processed and assembled in water-in-oil emulsions. We use DropSynth to successfully build >7000 synthetic genes that encode phylogenetically-diverse homologs of two essential genes in E. coli. We tested the ability of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase homologs to complement a knockout E. coli strain in multiplex, revealing core functional motifs and reasons underlying homolog incompatibility. DropSynth coupled with multiplexed functional assays allow us to rationally explore sequence-function relationships at unprecedented scale. Citation: DropSynth, a one-pot approach to gene synthesis (2018, January 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-01-dropsynth-one-pot-approach-gene-synthesis.html Credit: CC0 Public Domain
While we find amusement in salsa and bellydancing, the world immerses itself into Indian tradition. Case in point? Odissi dancer Sharon Lowen, whose passion and love for dance made her cross the culture barrier and establish her identity as a leading dancer. Born and brought up in Detroit, US, Sharon was interested in performing art from a very young age. She learnt modern dance, Cecchetti ballet and attended the Detroit Institute of Arts for puppetry, mime and theatre. She even performed with george Latshaw’s puppets for the Detroit and Cleveland Symphony and was offered an apprenticeship with the muppets. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’However, her heart lay elsewhere and she declined the offer only to pick up a Fullbright Scholarship to India. It was while studying in college in Michigan that she got hooked to Manipuri dance.Her first encounter with India happened in 1973 when she visited India for further studies in Manipuri dance form. It was then that Odissi piqued her interest and she took it as a challenge to master it as well as other dance forms like Chhau. So she trained in Mayurbhanj Chhau under Guru Krushna Chandra Naik, Odissi under Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra and Manipuri Pala Cholam under Guru Thangjam Chaoba Singh and Manipuri Maibi Jagoi under Guru Ranjana Maibi, Kumar Maibi and RK Achoubi Sana Singh. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe internationally acclaimed dancer is now all set to perform in the Capital. So what can Delhiites expect from the performance? ‘We will perform a Devi Mangalacharan, Kumarasambhavanam, Lalita Lavanglata from Geeta Govinda and Mokshya with Omkarakarini,’ says an excited Sharon.Being an exponent in so many different dance forms, what does she think is the difference between Indian and Western dance forms? ‘The main difference is that the Indian dance form requires the dancer to be an actress as well as a mover. It requires technique and abhinaya (acting). Dance in India comes from within. It is more earthly and spiritual and you have to feel it to master it,’ explains the artiste. Odissi, for her, was a challenge that she took up. ‘I had a gorgeous introduction to dance, theatre and literature back in the US. I had done a degree in Asian Literature and had studied Manipuri for about four years. I came to India to further study Manipuri and it was around that time that I started to learn Odissi. I decided that learning one classical was very difficult but not impossible and I was determined to learn Odissi. My interest led me to learning Chhau,’ she says.Language, however, was not a barrier. ‘We shared the language of dance and as such communication came easily to us. I had gurus who didn’t know English but we managed to get along and create our own bhasha. Apart from that, there were always people who would help us out in translation,’ says the dancer.Settling down in a country with a diametrically opposite culture was again no big deal for Sharon. ‘There is an inner reality that is same everywhere and if you emphasise you can look beyond culture and religion and settle anywhere you want. Oh yes! I’m also very grateful to the Indian public who gave me a chance and accepted my art. It is the love of audience that motivates an artist,’ she says, gracefully.The evening will also feature a tabla solo by Neetu Chopra and ghazals by Guru Vinod Kumar and Dr Kiran Martin.Be there to be mesmerised.DETAILAt: Shri Satya Sai Auditorium, 8 Pragati Vihar, Lodhi RoadWhen: 8 FebruaryTimings: 6.30pm onwards
While Burmese Laksa Soup, Summer salad with citrus fruits & ice-burg heart and Ratatouille lasagna caught everyone’s fantasy to sizzle up quick and wholesome meals, Mushroom fricassee pie, vanilla crème caramel and Shephard’s pie were all handcrafted to tease and seduce taste buds. The recipes were done perfect, succulent and were rendered with simple ingredients, put together ably for easy home-made cooking. The session was truly a grail that presented contemporary but innovative preparations, offering healthy, nutritive and sinful choices. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Vijay Wanchoo- Sr. Executive VP and GM says, ‘We chose to conduct demonstration of these one pot recipes which are not only super delicious and nutritious but are interesting and easy to cook as well. Filled with the goodness of carefully selected ingredients and less on the carb-loaded quotient, the recipes perfectly fit the lifestyle of multi-tasking woman who is hard-pressed on time but is keen on preparing healthy and flavourful meals for her family. The session at The Imperial Culinary Club just suited the occasion while succumbing to the need of the hour.’As The Imperial chefs went on discussing the finer culinary nuances recipe by recipe, the audience looked overwhelmed with the irresistible aroma and the presentation of one and all. We possibly could not have asked for more!
Bhisham Sahni’s literary skills, subtle looks and charming demeanour has made generations of readers, viewers and art connoisseurs bow with respect. Considered to be one of Hindi literature’s most prolific writers, his novels, short stories and screenplays have reached the length and breadth of the country as they have always addressed important social issues, invoking a surge of emotions and intrigue.A five-day festival, beginning from August 6, celebrating his birth anniversary is being organised by Life-Word-Image at India Habitat Centre, which will commemorate some of the playwright’s famous works. The festival will also showcase his films along with discussions and screening of his landmark
You can call it a heroic tale or an epic love saga, Manjhi-The Mountain Man, comes at a time when it seems like the best possible social reform and acts as a rescuer, breaking away from the stereotypical image of films and the film industry. The film traces the journey and life of Dashrath Manjhi, widely known as the ‘Mountain Man’, a poor labourer in Gehlaur village, near Gaya in Bihar, who with his undiminished will, carved a path through a mountain using only a hammer and a chisel. Also Read – A fresh blend of fameThe film which is slated for an August 21 release is directed by veteran director Ketan Mehta and stars Nawazuddin Siddiqui in the title role with Radhika Apte of Ahalya fame, as his wife.Here are the excerpts of an exclusive interview with Nawazuddin Siddiqui with our correspondent Sonali Mitra.What was the basic idea behind Manjhi?Manjhi is not just a biopic or a tribute to a great man and his efforts towards the betterment of the society. It is much more than that. It is real. The main agenda behind making this film was to spread a message to people, especially the youth. When you dig deep into the small cities and get to know the people, you come across various unexplored truths and facts, which we (people living in big cities) are unaware of. People living in the metropolis and the big cities are becoming self-centered, detached while leading a very materialistic life. They need to learn the art of living and loving, sharing and bonding from people living in small cities who do not live with insecurities and tend to accept and mould themselves according to the complexities of life. This is where a film like Manjhi acts as a breakthrough, which not only talks about a person’s incomparable determination but also humanitarian love for the people of his village and more importantly, his beloved wife. It is a truly inspiring story and a must watch. Also Read – Martin Freeman confirms ‘Black Panther’ returnTell us something about the character of Dashrath Manjhi that you have essayed in the film.With the unconventional concept of bringing a mountain and a man together, the character is basically about the zeal and the determination as well as the madness of a man to conquer the ‘mountain’ of problems that he comes across. Not only that but it also talks about a man’s single-handed hard work, overpowering will and unselfish intention. Such a task requires a great amount of mental strength rather than physical strength as well as a bit of a crazy streak, which is present in all of us that just needs to be explored and put into proper use. Additionally, this film’s main motive is to make people aware of great men like Manjhi, whose greatness was not subjected to personal achievement or materialistic gains but his noble intentions and the unconventional love for his wife, which, in a way, transcends Shah Jahan’s love for Mumtaz. Manjhi was full of life and humour. He used to love having long conversations as well as chitchats with people on various issues. He was a compassionate guy with a small build and lean physique with an indomitable will. He had a specific rhythm of talking which I’ve tried to incorporate in the character.How was the experience of shooting the film?It was quite tough considering the conditions and environment that we were shooting in. But at the same time it was fun and exciting.
Sometimes, in an individual’s life something comes along that transcends all material boundaries while leaving an aesthetic effect on the soul. For Kiran Sawhney, the first professionally trained Tango teacher in India, the aforementioned dance form is what fuels her obsession. Or as she simply puts it, “You don’t choose Tango; Tango chooses you.”Adept in all sorts of dance forms, be it the Indian classical or dances having international flavour like the Salsa and Merengue, Kiran revealed that when she was introduced to Tango, she knew this was what she was meant to do. “I knew it as soon as I came across Tango. After I discovered my unrelenting love for the dance, there was no looking back,” she gushed excitedly. “There are other variations of the dance as well like Ballroom Tango and the Argentine Tango. I, however, deal with the latter,” she added. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The innovator of Aqua Tango, a fun twist on the original dance which she combines with aerobics inside a swimming pool, Kiran adds a rather interesting element to her repertoire of training methods. “I have been doing