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Tesla sets deadline on new orders to get delivery and full tax

Tesla is the first automaker to hit the 200,000th EV delivery mark in the US and to trigger the phase-out of the federal tax credit for buyers of its electric vehicles.Now the automaker has set a deadline to get delivery by the end of the year in order to get the full tax credit on new orders before it ends. more…The post Tesla sets deadline on new orders to get delivery and full tax credit by end of the year appeared first on Electrek. Source: Charge Forward

Honda Launches Wireless V2G With WiTricity

first_imgBlock diagram for a bi-directional WPT system. Tachikawa et al. – Honda and WiTricity (Source: Green Car Congress)See more:DRIVE 11 Evaluation SystemFeasibility Study of Bi-directional Wireless Charging for Vehicle-to-GridSource: Honda, Green Car Congress Wireless + bi-directional energy transferHonda will present at CES in January an interesting concept of a wireless charging system for electric cars that’s combined with Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), a bi-directional energy transfer capability.The Wireless Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) was developed jointly with wireless charging specialist WiTricity and enables not only to charge the car, but also to power the home or the electric grid.The Japanese manufacturer is researching whether wireless V2G can create new value for customers.Wireless charging news “The growing popularity of electric vehicles (EVs) has the potential to strain the power grid, leading to the increased use of non-renewable energy sources to meet demand, which will result in greater carbon emissions. Recognizing that batteries in vehicles also can be used as storage to help balance supply and demand, Honda EV owners will be able to participate in the V2G program and receive compensation from utility operators who benefit from the use of Honda EVs to balance the grid’s energy supply.Unlike charging with a conventional charging cable, the system enables noncontact charging and discharging of an EV by parking on a charging pad, which makes the charging experience more convenient for customers. Honda has developed this Wireless Vehicle-to-Grid with WiTricity, the industry pioneer in wireless power transfer over distance. The Honda Wireless Vehicle-to-Grid can help eliminate the gap between supply and demand of electricity by charging EVs when power generation is greater than power consumption, and by discharging electricity from EVs to the power grid when consumption is greater than generation. To put this system in practical use, Honda is interested in collaborating with energy-related companies, including aggregators and electric companies.” Source: Electric Vehicle News BMW Introduces Factory-Fitted Wireless Charging For 530e iPerformancecenter_img Martha’s Vineyard Buses Get Wirelessly Charged Up With 200-kW System 120-kW Wireless Charging Proves 97% Efficient Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on December 13, 2018Categories Electric Vehicle Newslast_img read more

DOE invents highefficiency magnet for EV and hybrid motors

first_imgThe DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory has invented a new magnet technology, called HyMag, which could lead to greater efficiency and lighter weight in EV and hybrid motors.HyMag increases a permanent magnet’s usable magnetic flux density, a property of permanent magnets that can be harnessed for power generation.  “The higher the flux density you use for power generation, the more energy you generate,” said Argonne Group Leader Kaizhong Gao.  “You have to have higher flux density in order to have more efficiency.”In the 1990s, conventional permanent magnets composed of neodymium, iron and boron became widespread, yet they resisted efforts to improve performance, said Zhang.“In the past 15 to 20 years, the increase in magnet energy products reached a plateau due to lack of material solutions,” said Zhang. Researchers have looked into various ways to improve the composition, microstructures, and processes of existing magnetic materials. Each could lead to a small improvement of the magnet’s energy product. However, the magnetic flux of a magnet decays rapidly with distance, which makes the use of magnetic flux insufficient.Gao and fellow Argonne inventor Yuepeng Zhang have improved permanent magnet performance by combining hybrid layers of material in a way that reduces the flux leakage.When designed properly, the gain in the magnet’s usable flux density ranges from 10 to 30 percent, depending on the application and working temperatures, said Gao and Zhang.HyMag could especially benefit weight-sensitive applications because the technology’s higher efficiency could lead to downsized structures.On top of the greater efficiency and weight shedding, in certain applications, HyMag technology may require up to 90 percent less (by weight) rare-earth elements, such as dysprosium and gadolinium, than regular magnets with similar performance.These elements, mostly imported from China, can be scarce, expensive and difficult to recycle. According to Gao and Zhang, a typical vehicle traction motor contains approximately a tenth of a kilogram of dysprosium. Source: Electric Vehicles Magazine Source: Argonne National Laboratorylast_img read more

Fossil fuel subsidies top 5 trillion worldwide fair pricing would have cut

first_imgSource: Charge Forward A recent study projects that global fossil fuel subsidies totaled a staggering $5.2 trillion worldwide in 2017, and shows efficient pricing would have cut more than a quarter of global carbon emissions in 2015. more…Subscribe to Electrek on YouTube for exclusive videos and subscribe to the podcast.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09bIEmS_KdYThe post Fossil fuel subsidies top $5 trillion worldwide, fair pricing would have cut emissions 28%, study says appeared first on Electrek.last_img read more

Tesla is within reach of new record quarter for deliveries says Elon

first_imgAccording to an email sent by CEO Elon Musk to employees last night, Tesla is on pace for a new record quarter for deliveries – beating the last record achieved at the end of last year. more…Subscribe to Electrek on YouTube for exclusive videos and subscribe to the podcast.https://youtu.be/WdPfw3XWyJQThe post Tesla is within reach of new record quarter for deliveries, says Elon Musk appeared first on Electrek. Source: Charge Forwardlast_img

Holland Knight Elects Michelle Suarez to Directors Committee

first_img Lost your password? © 2014 The Texas Lawbook.By Brooks IgoStaff Writer for The Texas Lawbook(March 28) — Florida-based Holland & Knight elected Dallas partner Michelle Suárez to its Directors Committee, composed of 24 partners from across the firm. She will serve a three-year term.Suárez, a Cornell Law School graduate, focuses her corporate finance practice on lending and investment transactions. She was one of 12 partners that lateraled to Holland & Knight from Patton Boggs’ Dallas office last summer.© 2014 The Texas . . .You must be a subscriber to The Texas Lawbook to access this content. Username Not a subscriber? Sign up for The Texas Lawbook.center_img Remember me Passwordlast_img read more

Reducing exposure to hormone interfering chemicals may mitigate obesity risk

first_img Source:https://www.ese-hormones.org/ May 21 2018Everyday products carry environmental chemicals that may be making us fat by interfering with our hormones, according to research presented in Barcelona at the European Society of Endocrinology annual meeting, ECE 2018. Following recommendations on how to avoid these chemicals could help minimize exposure and potentially reduce the risk of obesity and its complications.Obesity increasingly affects millions of people worldwide, with cases rising sharply in young children and babies – a trend which is not explained by evolving diets and lifestyles alone. The condition contributes to an estimated 2.8 million deaths per year worldwide and leads to many other health complications, which are a large financial burden on healthcare systems.Chemicals that interfere with how our bodies store and process fat are referred to as ‘obesogens’, and have been suggested as a possible contributor to the increasing number of obesity cases. Obesogens reprogram how our cells work in two main ways: they can promote fat accumulation through increasing the number and size of fat cells or by increasing appetite, or they can make it more difficult to lose fat by changing our ability to burn calories. Previous studies have identified these chemicals in many everyday products, such as pesticides, plastics, flame retardants, repellent coatings on kitchen utensils and clothes, and artificial sweeteners. This comprehensive analysis aims to highlight to health professionals, and the public, the main sources of obesogens, and includes specific recommendations on minimizing exposure.Dr Ana Catarina Sousa and her research group, from the Universities of Aveiro and Beira Interior, Portugal, reviewed existing and new epidemiological surveys and animal studies, and showed that the most important sources of exposure to obesogens indoors are diet, house dust, and everyday products such as cleaning chemicals, kitchenware or cosmetics. Diet samples in some of the studies showed, for example, that obesogens such as tributyltin – a chemical in anti-fouling paint banned a decade ago, and cadmium – a metal widespread in the environment associated with certain cancers, can still be found in food products, in some cases at high concentrations.”Obesogens can be found almost everywhere, and our diet is a main source of exposure, as some pesticides and artificial sweeteners are obesogens. Equally, they are present in plastics and home products, so completely reducing exposure is extremely difficult – but to significantly reduce it is not only feasible, but also very simple”, Dr Sousa says.Related StoriesNew anti-obesity drug trial set to launch at Alberta Diabetes InstituteUranium toxicity might have caused obesity and diabetes in Kuwait, finds new studyUCR biomedical professor to investigate how body’s cannabis-like molecules influence obesityBased on the findings of the review, the researchers suggest specific recommendations to reduce obesogen exposure. The recommendations include: Choosing fresh food over processed products with long lists of ingredients on the label – the longer the list, the more likely the product is to contain obesogens Buying fruit and vegetables produced without pesticides, such as certified organic or local pesticide-free products Reducing the use of plastic, especially when heating or storing food. Instead, use glass or aluminium containers for your food and drinks. Removing shoes when entering the house to avoid bringing in contaminants in the sole of shoes Vacuuming often, using high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and dust your house frequently using a damp cloth. Removing or minimizing carpet at home or work, as they tend to accumulate more dust Avoiding cleaning products when possible, or choose those that do not contain obesogenscenter_img Further studies are needed in order to provide unequivocal evidence of how obesogens contribute to the obesity epidemic. “These are baby steps to achieve an obesogen-free lifestyle but a really good start. Essentially, watch your diet and get rid of the dust at home”, Dr Sousa comments. “Adults ingest about 50mg of dust every day, and children twice as much, so keeping the house clean is a very effective measure. And use a humid cloth to dust your furniture, rather than a cleaning product that may contain more of these chemicals.”Further work in Dr. Sousa’s research group includes a case control study to evaluate obesogen levels in Portuguese obese patients. Additionally, they intend to launch a new cohort study to monitor obesogen levels in urine and hair of pregnant women, and in their children, to further determine how obesogens affect their obesity risk.last_img read more

WHO launches multiyear campaign to eliminate use of trans fat

first_img Source:https://www.asu.edu/ Jun 19 2018Beginning today, all food in the United States must be made without trans fat, the culmination of a multiyear campaign to eradicate the harmful ingredient.In the 1990s, researchers began to link trans fat to health problems, including deadly high cholesterol. As the evidence began to accumulate, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration required the food industry to declare the amount of trans fat on food labels in 2006, and nine years later, the agency banned manufacturers from adding trans fat to any products by June 18, 2018.Many other countries also have banned trans fats, including Canada, England and Denmark. But they are still widely used in developing countries, where they contribute to high rates of cardiovascular disease.Because of that, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently launched a campaign calling for trans fats to be eliminated from the global food supply by 2023, potentially saving 10 million lives.But from the business side, that might not be as easy as it was in the U.S., according to Lauren Chenarides, an assistant professor at Arizona State University. She researches food policy and supply networks in the Morrison School of Agribusiness in the W. P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University.Question: Trans fats are found in a lot of processed food. What role does processed food play in emerging countries?Answer: Emerging countries are not like the U.S. or the U.K., where we have a lot of wealth in our borders. A larger portion of their budgets is allocated to food. Some recent research showed that in some emerging countries, they spend 30, 40 or 50 percent of their overall gross domestic product on food, and it’s largely going to carbohydrate-dense food like bread and pasta, and also to processed food.A lot of these countries rely on processed food because they’re dealing with inefficiencies in distribution and in the supply chain. How do you feed a growing population and have food that’s preferred in their culture? It has to be stored for a long period of time.Q: So how can they eliminate trans fats?A: The food-processing companies will have to reformulate their products, and they’ll have to come up with another fat that will not change the flavor and will withstand the transportation process. The best fats for that are actually animal fats. At room temperature, they’re solid because they’re saturated. Unsaturated fats are predominantly vegetable oil or canola oil but to make them solid at room temperature, you have to hydrogenate them. That turns them into trans fats.Related StoriesResearch paves way for new treatment to protect people from cardiovascular diseaseCholesterol-lowering drugs could increase risk of developing diabetesSmarter, more educated people get a cognitive ‘head start’, but aren’t protected from Alzheimer’sQ: Will the guidelines persuade food manufacturers to change their processes?A: The big global companies can use their economies of scale no matter where they are shipping. They’re more vertically integrated, they have relationships with growers and producers, sourcing networks and distribution networks that are more robust.But where I think the emerging countries will have more of a question mark is the local producers. They’re the ones that can’t benefit from economy of scale like the global manufacturers. They’ll have to differentiate themselves in some way and not increase costs too much.The local companies will wait to see what the response is. If the push is to stop using trans fats because the science shows it’s catastrophic for human health, they’ll have to meet those demands.Q: The WHO guidelines call for public education about the health effects of trans fats to encourage producers to stop using them. Is that an effective method?A: Education programs are costly and in some cases they won’t lead to behavior change.We can put a grocery store in a food desert and think, “That will be great, everyone will go there and we’ve solved the problem.” But we’re not changing behavior.Programs directed to youth are shown to be the most effective because they’re still shaping their behavior. You’re getting them at a time when they’re still learning.It has to be a multifaceted approach -; an education program coupled with a good marketing platform, where you’re introducing good signage, bright colors, promotions.That might not be replicable across every single region and every single country. Cultural differences can dictate the success of some programs, even among regions within a country.The sticky part is what happens in the next three to five years after the program rolls out. How do you get people who are accustomed to a certain way of doing things to understand that there’s a health benefit when you remove this from your diet?Q: Do you think the WHO campaign will work?A: Food manufacturers will be highly encouraged to change, and maybe they’ll do it, but they will make sure they’re cutting their costs as much as possible to make a profit and be competitive.It’s complicated but the food industry is so consumer-driven and if the consumers hear that they should be avoiding trans fats, it might be enough to pay attention to the guidelines that WHO is putting out.last_img read more

Legalizing samesex marriage has meaningful effects on health care access for sexualminority

first_imgJul 11 2018Vanderbilt researchers have documented evidence that legalizing same-sex marriage has improved access to health care for gay men in a study released as a National Bureau of Economic Research working paper this week. This is one of the first studies to examine the effect legal marriage has on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals.”This is an important question to study, since recent research has shown that LGBT individuals often face barriers to accessing health services including lack of insurance, stigma, and discrimination, and, as a result, can experience poor health outcomes,” said Christopher Carpenter, professor of economics, who led the trans-institutional research team and is the lead author on the paper. “A very large body of research in economics and sociology demonstrates that marriage is protective for health for heterosexual individuals, but ours is the first to show that marriage policy has meaningful effects on health care access for sexual-minority men.”Carpenter and his colleagues in the departments of economics and medicine, health and society at Vanderbilt University and the department of health policy at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine analyzed 16 years of data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a database of information about United States residents’ health-related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and use of preventive services.While the CDC survey did not specifically ask respondents their sexual orientation, the researchers were able to deduce from related responses about household structure that a sizable percentage of adults in households with exactly two same-sex adults are lesbian, gay or bisexual individuals who are likely in same-sex relationships.Related StoriesGender inequality bad for everyone’s health finds researchGovernment policy and infrastructure have substantial impact on hospitalization of seniorsSupplements claiming to boost brain health are ‘too good to be true’, warn experts”We found that lesbian, gay, or bisexual adults were more likely to get married after having access to legal same-sex marriage, and for men, that is associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability that they have health insurance, have a usual source of care, and have a routine health check-up,” said co-author Gilbert Gonzales Jr., assistant professor of health policy.The group was surprised to not see a similar effect for lesbian adults, but they plan on future research to better examine the cause for that difference. Another surprising finding was that while there was increased health insurance coverage and health care access for gay men, no actual health effects were seen in any of the populations examined.”For example, mental health was not improved, and there were no changes in negative health behaviors such as cigarette smoking or heavy drinking,” Gonzales said. “That might mean that it’s too soon to see some of these changes, since legalized, same-sex marriage is a fairly recent phenomenon in the United States.”The next step is to analyze more comprehensive data to see whether they are able to uncover other health impacts related to marriage.”If not, this suggests that same-sex marriage laws are not enough to positively impact the health of LGBT people,” said Gonzales. “There is still a lot of room for change in the policy environment to ensure the safety and well-being of these populations, but more research is needed.”Source: https://news.vanderbilt.edu/2018/07/11/legalizing-same-sex-marriage-increased-health-care-access-for-gay-men-vanderbilt-study/last_img read more

UM experts urge researchers to adopt a new scholarly focus for foodsystem

first_img Source:http://umich.edu Jul 24 2018The global food system is unsustainable and urgently needs an overhaul. Yet current approaches to finding solutions through applied academic research are too narrow and treat the food system as a collection of isolated components within established disciplines such as agronomy, sociology or nutritional science.What’s needed is a truly interdisciplinary approach that views all elements of the food system as part of a single, comprehensive framework, according to a group of 12 University of Michigan faculty members who issued a call to the global academic community July 23 in the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems.The researchers, who are part of U-M’s fledgling Sustainable Food Systems Initiative, urged colleagues worldwide to adopt a new scholarly focus for food-system studies, calling it an “urgently needed transformation.””A global system that leaves millions food-insecure while contributing to obesity, that generates significant environmental degradation, and that compromises the well-being of consumers and producers alike challenges the research community to ask new research questions and apply novel analytical frameworks for analyzing them,” the U-M researchers concluded.”Such a paradigm would inform new, transdisciplinary, and high-impact research questions that will help re-route the food system toward a path of environmental, social, and economic sustainability,” they wrote.The U-M’s Sustainable Food Systems Initiative was formed through a cluster hire of young faculty members that was part of a $30 million initiative announced in 2007 by former U-M President Mary Sue Coleman to recruit scholars whose work crosses disciplinary boundaries.The sustainable food systems cluster hire added new faculty to the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, the School for Environment and Sustainability, the School of Public Health, and the Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning. The initiative is led by several senior U-M ecologists including John Vandermeer, who described the group’s Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems article as a manifesto of sorts.”This group of faculty emerged from the cluster that the U-M gave us six years ago, which has really taken off and which now has a life of its own,” Vandermeer said of the Sustainable Food System Initiative. “Although each faculty member has her or his own research program, all of us are united in the realization that an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve this urgent world problem.Related StoriesMetabolic enzyme tied to obesity and fatty liver diseaseNovel program in England’s third largest city helps reduce childhood obesityNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancer”In addition to research and teaching, the Sustainable Food System Initiative acts as a sort of think tank to provide analysis about issues of food and agriculture. This article is an example of our outreach work.”In their Frontiers article, the researchers propose a new analytical framework for the study of the global food system that lies at the intersection of four topics: the ecology of agroecosystems, equity in global and local food systems, the cultural dimensions of food and agriculture, and human health. They summarize the importance of each of the four research foci:Agricultural ecology is now considered a major component of the natural science of ecology, yet it’s often given short shrift in the design of agricultural production systems, according to the authors. A broader focus on managing ecological interactions on farms would reduce the negative environmental consequences of agriculture.Equity issues are essential to solving several food crises. Poor access to healthy, diverse, affordable food is the crux of food insecurity worldwide. One of the current system’s “starkest contradictions” is the abundance of food while millions remain food-insecure: While the world produces enough edible calories to feed more than 9 billion people, 815 million people were chronically undernourished in 2016.Human cultures. Globalization has generated a tendency toward diet homogenization based on the Western diet, often with adverse health consequences. The concomitant reduction in food diversity and in some cultures “points to a crisis of democracy evident in contemporary food systems,” the U-M researchers wrote.Human health. Across the globe, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, obesity and other diet-related diseases are top contributors to lost years of healthy life and are responsible for an enormous socioeconomic burden. “Linking global public health to the kind, quality and availability of food is an essential part of the new paradigm” for food-system research, they wrote.last_img read more

The benefits of inequality

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Which would you prefer: egalitarianism or totalitarianism? When it comes down to it, the choice you make may not be as obvious as you think. New research suggests that in the distant past, groups of hunter-gatherers may have recognized and accepted the benefits of living in hierarchical societies, even if they themselves weren’t counted among the well-off. This model could help explain why bands of humans moved from largely egalitarian groups to hierarchical cultures in which social inequality was rife.How such hierarchical structures gained ground and then proliferated is one of the big mysteries in social evolution. It’s also largely a matter of conjecture, because most of these transitions occurred in the relatively distant past. Researchers have typically posed two scenarios, says Simon Powers, an evolutionary anthropologist at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland. In one, the hierarchy is imposed from above by strong or charismatic individuals, with followers having little, if any, choice in the matter. In the other, those who end up as followers consider their options and willingly buy into an evolving social order.Archaeological evidence that could help shed light on such societal evolution is noticeably lacking. Modern field studies of egalitarian societies aren’t enlightening either. “There’s no recorded shift from one type of society to the other,” says Christopher Boehm, an evolutionary anthropologist at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles who wasn’t involved in the new study. “We have good descriptions of ‘before’ and ‘after,’ but not anything during the actual transition.”center_img Email So, Powers and his Lausanne colleague Laurent Lehmann tackled the problem by developing a computer model that considers the social dynamics among individuals in a small group, including each person’s tolerance for authority and the disadvantages they’d suffer if they shifted allegiance to another group or struck out on their own. In the model, a person’s offspring inherits the parent’s values, with some opportunity for gradual change through the generations. The simulation also tracks the evolving social structure’s effect on overall group size and productivity, Powers says.When the researchers let the model run over several generations, they found that, in general, groups made up of leaders and followers were able to produce or gather more resources than those made up of egalitarian-minded individuals. That, in turn, enabled the hierarchical group to grow more quickly and to better eke out a living. According to the model, groups made up of leaders and followers eventually grew to about twice the size of societies solely composed of egalitarians. And even when leaders skimmed a large portion of a group’s resulting surplus for themselves and their families, their followers received, on average, more resources than they would have if they’d been part of a leaderless band, Powers and Lehmann report online today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.To see how this might have worked in the real world, consider nascent agricultural societies, Powers says. In such groups, widespread cooperation is necessary for large endeavors such as planting and harvesting crops and for building irrigation systems. Having leaders to organize such projects and followers to carry them out may have been a more efficient form of social organization than true egalitarianism. Followers may have been willing to exchange a bit of control over their lives for access to a society-wide increase in resources, Powers says.Such notions “have been around for a long time in verbal form,” says Paul Hooper, an evolutionary anthropologist at Emory University in Atlanta who wasn’t involved in the research. “What [Powers and Lehmann] have done here is take these ideas and make them work within a very elegant mathematical framework.”But to be more realistic, the duo’s simulation may need to include more factors, says Kim Sterelny, who studies the evolution of social behavior at Australian National University in Canberra and wasn’t involved in the current work. For example, the benefits of being a leader almost ensure that there would be strong competition (and possibly even conflict) among group members for power. “The [team’s] model idealizes away the costs and inefficiencies of politics,” he suggests. Plus, he notes, the model doesn’t seem to consider the notion that egalitarian members of a group could band together into an “antielite” coalition.One nice aspect of the team’s simulation, Sterelny notes, is that dissatisfied individuals within a group can, in essence, vote with their feet and leave the group: “If dispersal is relatively low cost, leaders cannot afford to be greedy.” Yet the team’s model also helps explain how despots can rise to and retain power: When the costs of switching allegiance to another group or striking out on one’s own are unacceptably high, Powers says, individuals in the group are essentially stuck in the group, left to make the best of a bad situation.*Clarification, 6 August, 12:42 p.m.: A sentence has been added to this article to help clarify comments and quotes by evolutionary anthropologist Christopher Boehm.last_img read more

Does North Korea really have an Hbomb

first_img Seismograms of North Korea’s four declared nuclear tests that were recorded in Mudanjiang, China, approximately 370 kilometers from the test site. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) North Korea claims to have detonated its first hydrogen bomb yesterday. But experts are skeptical that the pariah state detonated—not an ordinary atomic device—but a much more powerful “H-bomb of justice,” as state media is now calling it. So what kind of device did the reclusive regime test? And how can nuclear jockeys make such a determination from afar?There’s no doubt that North Korea detonated something near where it conducted nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, and 2013. Seismic stations yesterday recorded a magnitude-5.1 earthquake with a waveform nearly identical to those registered after North Korea’s earlier tests, supporting its claim. The waveform confirms that an explosion triggered yesterday’s earthquake, says Brian Stump, a seismologist at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. “It could be a chemical or nuclear explosion, but because of the magnitude it is likely a nuclear explosion,” he says. Researchers are now “chewing through the waveforms” registered by seismometers in the region “to see what’s different from 2013,” says Andy Frassetto, a seismologist with the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology consortium in Washington, D.C. Email Courtesy of Andy Frassetto, Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country The estimated magnitude of yesterday’s detonation, 7 to 10 kilotons, equates to a small fission bomb. Compared to standard H-bombs, which get most of their ferocity from fusing hydrogen, that’s downright puny. The most powerful H-bomb ever tested had a yield of 50 megatons, around 2000 times more powerful than the 21-kiloton bomb dropped on Nagasaki at the end of World War II. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe There are “multiple explanations for North Korea’s consistently low weapon yields,” says R. Scott Kemp, a nuclear physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. “My best guess is that nobody really knows, even in the darkest corners of the CIA.” One line of thinking is that North Korea yesterday may have tested a “primary:” a miniaturized atomic bomb used to initiate a hydrogen bomb. In this case, the hydrogen bomb part might not have existed, or might have failed. Alternatively, the test could have been a standard fission bomb that relies primarily on plutonium or uranium for its explosive yield.An H-bomb would require much more sophistication. But it’s something North Korea clearly covets. State media in recent years have touted progress toward a fusion device, and last month the nation’s leader, Kim Jong Un, stated that his country has an H-bomb.So could yesterday’s blast plausibly have been an H-bomb? “First,” Kemp says, “you need to distinguish between a legitimate H-bomb and a fusion-boosted device,” the latter being a kind of turbocharged fission bomb that uses a small thermonuclear reaction to increase yield. By comparison, a traditional H-bomb—the sort of device that comprises most weapons stockpiled by the United States and Russia—is a two-stage device with a dedicated thermonuclear secondary. The first stage is a fission explosion. It releases x-rays that heat and implode a hydrogen-based secondary, causing the atoms to fuse and release massive quantities of energy. “The secondary is how you get to very large yields,” Kemp says.A boosted device is simpler. Heavy hydrogen—deuterium and tritium gas—are injected into the center of a plutonium pit, Kemp says. The heat of the fission reaction ignites a short-lived fusion reaction that enhances—or boosts—the yield, but not to the degree of a two-stage bomb. Such a device is much more plausible than an H-bomb, says Li Bin, a nuclear analyst at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, D.C. Yesterday’s test, he says, “could have been a boosted bomb.”Assuming North Korea doesn’t invite nuclear inspectors to its test site, the only way outsiders could determine whether it exploded an H-bomb or a boosted bomb would be through a careful analysis of the fission products released in the blast. North Korea’s test was underground, but unless it was exceptionally well-contained, radioactive noble gases—primarily radioxenon isotopes—could start leaking into the atmosphere in the next couple days, says Anders Ringbom, a nuclear physicist at the Swedish Defence Research Agency in Stockholm. “If you detect the xenon isotopes, that’s the smoking gun that proves the detonation was nuclear in nature.”The neutrons generated in a fusion reaction are about seven times as energetic as neutrons generated in a fission reaction, which means that the species of radioisotopes spawned by an H-bomb are different from that of a fission bomb. “You should be able to detect this,” Kemp says, depending on how quickly the radioactive gases are able to escape into the atmosphere and get sampled. “It becomes more and more difficult the longer it takes to leak.”The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) operates a global network of radioactive noble gas detectors. Its network picked up on xenon-133 and xenon-131m leaking several weeks after the 2013 test. The late sightings did not provide enough information to determine whether Korea used plutonium or uranium as the fissile material that time. Japan, South Korea, and the United States also have airborne noble gas detectors thought to be even more sensitive than the CTBTO detectors. But whatever they learned from previous North Korean tests has not been made public. And that’s likely to be the case this time around, too, which means we might have no choice but take North Korea’s word—or leave it—about the new “H-bomb of justice.”last_img read more

These parasitic birds act just like human criminals

first_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country An aspiring criminal sneaks past a family home, formulating her plan to break in during the dim hours before dawn. But this isn’t a typical criminal, nor a typical crime. For one, she’s a bird. And instead of stealing valuables, she’ll be leaving something precious behind. A new study lays out just how two devious cowbird species plan and execute the perfect crime, and sometimes even return to the scene after the deed is done.Rather than doing the hard labor of raising their own chicks, cowbirds and other so-called brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of various unsuspecting songbirds, which then raise the foreign chicks as their own. It’s a delicate job, and it requires precise timing. Too early, and her egg will stand out in an empty nest; too late, and her chick might not get the attention it needs from its surrogate parent.Cowbirds, scientists figure, must scope out nests beforehand to get the timing right. “We kind of know it goes on,” says Jeffrey Hoover, an avian ecologist at the University of Illinois in Urbana who wasn’t involved with the study, “but we never had a good data set to point to.” So a team of researchers led by Romina Scardamaglia, a behavioral ecologist at the University of Buenos Aires, decided to use new radio-tracking technology to snoop on two kinds of devious cowbirds in Argentina. Emailcenter_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) All 41 tagged birds checked their target nests a few days ahead of time to fine tune their timing, the team reports this month in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Screaming cowbirds (Molothrus rufoaxillaris) were by far the more dedicated, visiting nests an average of 27 times each—almost twice as often as shiny cowbirds (M. bonariensis). That’s likely because the victims of screaming cowbird parasitism have wisened up. They lay their eggs at unpredictable times, so their cowbird parasites have to be especially obsessive about their own timing.Each of the screaming cowbirds later returned to the scene of the crime, too—one even went back to the same nest 39 times after laying. The shiny cowbirds, on the other hand, tended to avoid nests after they parasitized them. That makes sense in light of their grisly methods: They have a habit of poking holes in all of the eggs they come across, so avoiding a nest they’ve already laid in is the easiest way to avoid accidentally killing their own chicks.For some victims of cowbirds, these assaults take a toll. The threatened saffron-cowled blackbird (Xanthopsar flavus) in Argentina has declined in numbers partially because of the shiny cowbird’s vicious egg destruction. And in the United States, at least two threatened species have been hit hard enough by brown-headed cowbirds (M. ater) to spark cowbird-killing efforts by conservationists.Those North American cowbirds are perhaps the most hardened criminals of all the cowbirds, practicing what scientists call “mafia behavior.” “If the host throws out the cowbird’s egg, the cowbird will destroy the nest again and again,” says William Feeney, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia.It might be easy to vilify brood parasites, but humans are exacerbating their impacts. In the United States, for instance, cowbird populations have exploded thanks to the easy food and nesting opportunities offered by sprawling patchworks of forest and agricultural land. “Cowbirds are just doing what they’ve evolved to do,” Hoover says. “But humans make it easier for them to do it.”last_img read more

Warming seas may scramble North Americas fishing industry

first_img Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe For the fishing industry, such shifts are beginning to have practical consequences. In some cases, boats must travel farther to fishing grounds, driving up costs. Processing facilities have had to move, causing job losses in some communities. Valuable stocks have also shifted to waters controlled by other countries, sparking conflicts over who has the right to lucrative catches.To get a sense of how such range shifts might play out along North America’s coasts, Malin, Morley, and colleagues tapped a vast trove of data from research trawlers that made more than 136,000 trips in U.S. and Canadian waters between 1970 and 2015. Those and other data, including water temperature, depth, and seafloor composition, helped them identify the preferred habitats of 686 marine species. The researchers then used 16 climate models to assemble two scenarios for each species: one in which global temperatures rise more than 4°C by 2090; the other in which they rise by just 2°C.Species shift northward under both scenarios, but the shifts were greater with the 4°C rise. Along the Atlantic coast, for instance, the center of many species’ ranges shifted some 600 kilometers north, with tropical species moving into previously temperate waters and northern species abandoning the southern parts of their ranges. On the Pacific coast, some species shifted north by more than 1500 kilometers.The modeling also suggests warming will lead to bigger overall ranges for some species. In the northern Pacific, for example, the preferred habitat of two commercial species, jack mackerel and canary rockfish, could nearly double in size. But there are losers, too. Around Florida, the preferred habitat of a fish called the sheepshead drops by nearly half. The ranges of two especially lucrative fish, Alaska pollock and Atlantic cod, also could shrink.Pinsky’s team is careful to note that such projections are still rough, and that researchers will need to learn more about how specific species behave and reproduce to forecast how they will respond to warming seas.“We need a deeper understanding of the ecological interactions … to fully assess the likelihood of these predictions becoming reality,” agrees ecologist William Sydeman, president and senior scientist at the Farallon Institute for Advanced Ecosystem Research in Petaluma, California. But, he says the study, which he calls “impressive” and the “most comprehensive analysis attempted to date,” is still a useful starting point for thinking about how climate change might affect bringing that cod filet or clam fritter to your plate. By David MalakoffMay. 16, 2018 , 5:55 PM Get ready, seafood lovers: Climate change may complicate efforts to net your catch of the day. That’s because warming seas will force many of North America’s most valuable fish and shellfish stocks north in coming decades, a major new modeling study finds, potentially creating headaches for the fishing industry and government regulators. Some species could see their ranges shrink by half, whereas others are poised to expand into vast new territories more than 1000 kilometers north of their current homes.“Basically, climate change is forcing species to move, jumbling up ecosystems,” says ecologist Malin Pinsky of Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, who led the study with postdoctoral researcher James Morley, now at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. “That’s not necessarily bad news. But we’ve already seen that even much smaller shifts in the distribution of marine species can cause real economic disruption, political friction, and challenges to fisheries managers. And here we are talking about potentially big shifts.”Researchers have already shown that on land and in the sea, plants and animals are shifting their ranges in response to rising global temperatures. Trees that thrive in warmer climates, for example, are spreading into areas where frigid winters once made survival impossible. And species that need cooler weather are retreating from areas that have become too warm. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img Robert F. Bukaty/AP Photo Warming seas may scramble North America’s fishing industry Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) In a warmer world, boats targeting Atlantic cod, such as this one, might have to head farther north to find the fish.last_img read more

Stonehenge other ancient rock structures may trace their origins to monuments like

first_img By about 4300 B.C.E., megaliths had spread to coastal sites in southern France, the Mediterranean, and on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Over the next few thousand years, the structures continued to pop up around Europe’s coasts in three distinct phases. Stonehenge is thought to have been erected around 2400 B.C.E., but other megaliths in the British Isles go back to about 4000 B.C.E. The abrupt emergence of specific megalithic styles like narrow stone-lined tombs at coastal sites, but rarely inland, suggests these ideas were being spread by prehistoric sailors. If so, it would push back the emergence of advanced seafaring in Europe by about 2000 years, Schulz Paulsson says.“This seems quite plausible,” says Gail Higginbottom, an archaeologist at the University of Adelaide in Australia.Parker Pearson says the study does a good job establishing that megaliths first arose in northwestern France, but it doesn’t quite rule out the possibility that some later cultures independently developed the idea.Karl-Göran Sjögren, a fellow archaeologist at the University of Gothenburg, says he accepts that northwest France was among the first builders. But he isn’t fully convinced there aren’t still earlier megaliths yet to be uncovered, or more evidence that might push back the dates of some known megaliths. Future studies that include ancient DNA and other bioarchaeological evidence on population movements could clear things up, he says. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Andia/UIG/Getty Images Stonehenge, other ancient rock structures may trace their origins to monuments like this Dolmen Sa Coveccada on northeastern Sardinia in the Mediterranean Sea Stonehenge may be the most famous example, but tens of thousands of other ancient sites featuring massive, curiously arranged rocks dot Europe. A new study suggests these megaliths weren’t created independently but instead can be traced back to a single hunter-gatherer culture that started nearly 7000 years ago in what is today the Brittany region of northwestern France. The findings also indicate societies at the time were better boaters than typically believed, spreading their culture by sea.“This demonstrates absolutely that Brittany is the origin of the European megalithic phenomenon,” says Michael Parker Pearson, an archaeologist and Stonehenge specialist at University College London.The origins of the megalith builders have haunted Bettina Schulz Paulsson since she excavated her first megalithic monument in Portugal nearly 20 years ago. Early on, most anthropologists thought megaliths originated in the Near East or the Mediterranean, whereas many modern thinkers back the idea they were invented independently in five or six different regions around Europe. The major hurdle, she says, has been sorting through the mountains of archaeological data to find reliable dates for the 35,000 sites, including carved standing stones, tombs, and temples. Email Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img The famed megalith Carnac in the Brittany region of northwestern France “Everyone told me, ‘You’re crazy, it can’t be done,’” says Schulz Paulsson, a prehistoric archaeologist at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden and the study’s sole author. “But I decided to do it anyway.” What she did was sift through radiocarbon dating data from 2410 ancient sites across Europe to reconstruct a prehistoric archaeological timeline. The radiocarbon dates came mostly from human remains buried within the sites. The study looked not just at megaliths, but also at so-called premegalithic graves that featured elaborate, earthen tombs but no huge stones. Schulz Paulsson also factored in information on the sites’ architecture, tool use, and burial customs to further narrow the dates.The very earliest megaliths in Europe, she found, come from northwestern France, including the famous Carnac stones, a dense collection of rows of standing stones, mounds, and covered stone tombs called dolmens. These date to about 4700 B.C.E., when the region was inhabited by hunter-gatherers. Engravings on standing stones from the region depict sperm whales and other sea life, which suggests the precocious masons may also have been mariners, Schulz Paulsson says.Northwestern France is also the only megalithic region that also features gravesites with complex earthen tombs that date to about 5000 B.C.E., which she says is evidence of an “evolution of megaliths” in the region. That means megalith building likely originated there and spread outward, she reports today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. By Michael PriceFeb. 11, 2019 , 3:00 PM Bettina Schulz Paulsson Bettina Schulz Paulsson The Ring of Brodgar on the United Kingdom’s Orkney Islandslast_img read more

Winslow officials attend annual league conference

first_imgAugust 28, 2018 By L. Parsons WINSLOW — The 2018 League of Arizona Cities and Towns Conference took place last week in Phoenix and brings together 90 incorporated cities and towns across Arizona and offers presentations and informationSubscribe or log in to read the rest of this content. Bottom Ad Winslow officials attend annual league conferencecenter_img Photo by Steve PaukenMayor Tom McCauley carried Winslow’s flag in to the 2018 League of Arizona Cities and Towns Conference held last week in Phoenix.last_img read more

China says US cant use pressure to force trade deal

first_imgHowever, it did say that China was confident in being able to sustain economic growth amid the dispute. Top News Taking stock of monsoon rain Advertising China says US can't use pressure to force trade deal Trump has said he is going to meet with President Xi Jinping at the G20 summit in Osaka at the end of the month, though China has consistently refused to say they have agreed to this. (File)The United States cannot use pressure to force a trade deal on China, a senior Chinese official and trade negotiator said on Sunday, refusing to be drawn on whether the leaders of the two countries would meet at the G20 summit to bash out an agreement. Post Comment(s) “If the U.S. side wants to use extreme pressure, to escalate the trade friction, to force China to submit and make concessions, this is absolutely impossible,” said Wang, who has been part of China’s negotiating team.Switching into English, he said: “Nothing is agreed until everything is agreed”.Trump has said he is going to meet with President Xi Jinping at the G20 summit in Osaka at the end of the month, though China has consistently refused to say they have agreed to this.Wang was equally taciturn.“I don’t have any information on this to provide,” he said, when asked if Xi would meet Trump in Japan. Advertising Advertising By Reuters |Beijing | Published: June 2, 2019 10:24:41 am Best Of Express Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 The United States overestimates the trade deficit between the two countries and China should not be blamed for job losses in the U.S. manufacturing sector, Wang said.The U.S. goods and services deficit with China is actually closer to $150 billion and not the $410 billion quoted by U.S. officials. China’s processing trade with the United States should not be included in trade deficit calculations, he added.Wang also said China does not instruct domestic companies to acquire certain projects and technology. The U.S. has complained about Chinese theft of intellectual property, which Beijing has called a “political tool” to suppress China’s development.Wang said the commerce ministry is investigating reports of delays in customs checks and will make efforts to cut the length of customs checks and reduce costs for importers. P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies Chandrayaan-2 gets new launch date days after being called off Wang said that it is “unacceptable” if some countries use rare earths from China to create products that limit China’s development, and he said Beijing is willing to meet other countries’ requirements for rare earth consumption.Wang was speaking at the unveiling of a new government policy paper on the trade war, though the document mostly reiterated previous Chinese talking points. Chandrayaan-2 gets new launch date days after being called off Trade tensions escalated sharply last month after US President Donald Trump’s administration accused China of having “reneged” on its previous promises to make structural changes to its economic practices.Washington later slapped additional tariffs of up to 25% on $200 billion of Chinese goods, prompting Beijing to retaliate.Speaking at a hastily arranged news conference, Chinese Vice Commerce Minister Wang Shouwen said it was irresponsible of the United States to accused China of backtracking. More Explainedlast_img read more

Spelling errors video show Huawei rival stole trade secrets US jury hears

first_imgThe Chinese company has become a flashpoint in allegations by the United States government that Huawei gear is a threat to US security. The US government blacklisted the company and is applying pressure on US allies not to buy its equipment.China last week retaliated against the ban, saying it planned to draft its own list of foreign companies and people it considers “unreliable” for harming Chinese companies.In addition to showing jurors the documents’ common misspellings, Huawei lawyer Michael Wexler played excerpts of a video deposition in which another former employee admitted to copying 5,760 files from his work computer before leaving Huawei to join CNEX.“Think of the spelling mistakes as DNA,” Wexler said in his opening statement to an eight-person jury in US District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. “Stealing technology is wrong.” By Reuters | Published: June 5, 2019 8:30:52 am The trial to decide a civil lawsuit began with the Huawei lawyer showing jurors that spelling errors in its internal documents were repeated in proposals the former manager, Ronnie Huang, used to start chip-maker CNEX Labs Inc three days after leaving Huawei.Two years ago Huawei sued CNEX and Huang, who co-founded CNEX in 2013, seeking at least $85.7 million in damages and rights to its memory-control technology.Huang, who countersued Huawei and denies the company’s allegations, testified in court on Tuesday that he did not recall or could not explain how documents used to promote CNEX included charts, diagrams and passages that were very similar to work he had done for Huawei. Huawei plans to cut jobs in US-based R&D unit: Report Huawei Mate 30 Pro leaked screen cover shows 90-degree curved display Huawei, Huawei banned in US, China huawei, us bans Huawei, US news, CNEX, us-china ties, Workers are seen near the booth of Huawei Technologies Co under construction at the venue of China International Big Data Industry Expo in Guiyang, Guizhou province, China. (Source: REUTERS/File)A former engineering manager used Huawei Technologies Co Ltd trade secrets and lured away 24 of its employees to improperly build his startup company, a lawyer for the Chinese telecommunications firm told a Texas jury on Tuesday. P Rajagopal, Saravana Bhavan founder sentenced to life for murder, dies 0 Comment(s) Advertisingcenter_img Ayodhya dispute: Mediation to continue till July 31, SC hearing likely from August 2 Best Of Express Related News Advertising A CNEX attorney said the spelling errors were identical because Huang wrote all the documents. But when asked if he had cut and pasted confidential Huawei material into his own, Huang said: “It looks like it’s the same, but I don’t recall doing it.”CNEX develops chips that speed up data storage on cloud computing networks. The countersuit by CNEX and Huang sought $24.5 million in damages from Huawei over development delays and lost future revenue.“The things that Huawei claims are trade secrets are not,” CNEX attorney Deron Dacus said in his opening statement, describing the lawsuit as “bullying and intimidation.”Huang has raised more than $100 million from backers including arms of Dell Technologies and Microsoft.Judge Amos Mazzant, who is hearing the case, separately is overseeing Huawei’s bid to overturn the Trump administration’s ban on its sales to government agencies and contractors. 5G rollout: How far has India progressed, and where does it stand on Huawei? Chandrayaan-2 launch on July 22 at 2.43 pm: ISRO last_img read more